首页 > 英语> 英语语法> 形容词>

英语复合形容词的构成方法(详细且例句丰富)

时间: 04-08     手机版

复合形容词写起来经常带有连字符。最常见的类型有如下几种:

一、用分词等构成的复合形容词

1. 用过去分词构成。如:

She watched him from behind half-closed eyelids. 她半闭着眼观察他。

Long ago, people traveled in horse-drawn carriages. 很久以前,人们乘坐马车旅行。

Foam-filled couches are a serious fire hazard. 泡沫填料的沙发是火灾的一大隐患。

They sauntered along the tree-lined boulevard. 他们沿着两旁绿树成荫的大道漫步。

My hearing-impaired sister signed “good-bye” to me. 我听力受损的姐姐用手势语向我告别。

Their single-minded devotion to the care of the dying was admirable. 他们对垂死者的尽心照顾真是令人钦佩。

The government has scrapped its plans for earning-related pensions. 政府已经废弃了与收入挂钩的养老金计划。

Many buildings collapsed under the weight of rain-soaked ash and mud. 许多大楼在雨水浸泡的泥灰重压下倒塌了。

According to a strict definition, the expenses of a self-employed person can be deducted from tax. 根据严格的定义,个体经营者的开支可从税款中扣除。

2. 用现在分词构成。如:

It is very space-consuming. 这东西很占地方。

It was a time-consuming and fiddly job. 这项工作耗时费事。

Appeals can be costly and time-consuming.上诉可能要花很多钱,并且很耗时间。

The long-playing record was made defunct by the arrival of the CD. 光盘的出现使慢转唱片过时了。

The hotel provides a shoe-cleaning service for its residents. 这家旅馆为旅客提供刷鞋服务。

You have a choice of hotel or self-catering accommodation. 你可选择住旅馆或自理膳食的住宿处。

The winter heatwave in California is a stark contrast to the below-freezing temperatures on the East Coast. 加州的冬季热浪与东海岸的零下气温形成了鲜明的对比。

Our long-suffering mining communities deserve better than this. 我们长期受苦受难的采矿群体应该得到比这更好的待遇。

3. 用看上去像分词而实际上是由“名词加-ed”合成的词构成。如:

He was bare-chested and barefoot. 他袒胸赤足。

In his later life he became even more absent-minded. 他晚年变得愈加健忘了。

He was hollow-eyed and seemed very close to exhaustion. 他眼眶深陷,看起来几乎是精疲力竭了。

When the police arrived the burglars fled empty-handed. 警察赶到时,窃贼两手空空地逃走了。

She is warm-hearted and kind to everyone and everything. 她对每个人每件事都很热心、宽厚。

He might be a bore, but he was as quick-witted as a weasel. 他也许是个很无聊的人,可是却像黄鼠狼一样机灵。

二、表示度量等的复合形容词

基数词可与名词 (一般用单数) 构成复合形容词表示时间、度量等,例如:

1. 年龄。如:

The marrow donor is her 14-month-old sister. 骨髓捐献者是她14个月大的妹妹。

She was charged with abducting a six-month-old child. 她被控诱拐一个6个月大的孩子。

I don’t think most nine-year-old children have their teeth brushed. 我想大多数9岁的孩子不会让别人帮着刷牙。

She didn’t want her fourteen-year-old daughter coming home at all hours of the morning. 她不希望自己14岁的女儿凌晨才回家。

2. 面积 / 体积 / 容积。如:

This model is powered by a 1.8-litre petrol engine. 这一型号用1.8 升汽油发动机驱动。

The 77,000-acre estate contains five of the highest peaks in Scotland. 7.7万英亩的私人土地上有5座苏格兰最高的山峰。

3. (持续)时间 / 距离。如:

The seven-hour armed siege at the school ended peacefully. 对这所学校的7 小时武装包围平安结束了。

Heavy fighting erupted there today after a two-day ceasefire. 在停火两天后,今天那里爆发了激烈的战斗。

NASA has started a 10-year search for extraterrestrial intelligence. 美国航空航天局已经启动了一个为期10年的寻找外星人的项目。

His salary was obscene for three 40-minute shows a week. 他一周只有3次节目,每次40分钟,但他的薪水实在高得离谱。

4. 长度 / 深度。如:

The other car had a 3-inch lower driving seat and had its engine mounted further forward. 另外一辆车的驾驶座椅低了3英寸,引擎更加靠前。

A twenty-foot steel pyramid is to be hoisted into position on top of the tower. 一个高20英尺的钢质角锥体将被吊起,安装在塔的顶部。

5. 价格 / 价值。如:

I’ll need a five-hundred-dollar retainer. 我将收取500美元的定金。

The multibillion-dollar fitness industry rakes in fat profits from our hunger to look good. 数十亿美元的健身产业利用我们的爱美之心赚取巨额利润。

7. 重量。如:

a ten-stone man 一位体重140磅的男子

a five-kilo bag of flour 一个5公斤的面粉袋

He caught a 6.28-pound salmon in the annual fishing derby at Lake Winnipesaukee. 他在温尼珀索基湖举行的一年一度的钓鱼比赛中钓到了一条重 6.28 磅的鲑鱼。

注:序数词也可以用于复合形容词。如:

The shop deals in second-hand books. 这家商店经营二手书籍。

Both players both won their first-round matches in aggressive style. 两名选手均以进攻性风格在他们的第一轮比赛中获胜。

Year after year they wheel out the same third-rate celebrities to entertain us. 年复一年,他们反复用同样的三流名演员为我们助兴。

The museum has unusually rich holdings of seventeenth-century Italian art. 这个博物馆收藏有极为丰富的17世纪意大利艺术品。

三、用前缀和后缀构成的复合形容词

复合形容词可由各种前缀和后缀构成(即在本来是形容词的前或后加上某些表示特定意义的前缀或后缀构成复合形容词)。如:

We offer interest-free credit on all new cars. 所有新车我们都提供无息贷款服务。

Sports drinks have caught on as consumers have become more health-conscious. 随着消费者健康意识的增强,运动型饮料开始流行起来。

He began to insist upon a bullet-proof limousine, just for peace of mind. 他开始坚持要防弹豪华轿车,仅仅是为了安心而已。

They experimented successfully on the plants to discover disease-resistant varieties. 他们成功地对植物进行了实验,发现了抗病品种。

四、用well, bad, ill, poorly等构成的复合形容词

——well

There is a special need for well-trained teachers. 特别需要训练有素的老师。

At last she managed to have a well-deserved rest. 她终于争取到了完全应该得到的休息。

Tonight’s speaker is a well-known writer and journalist. 今晚的讲话人是出名的作家兼新闻记者。

The well-established firm closed down with the loss of 600 jobs. 那家地位巩固的公司倒闭了,造成600 个职位丧失。

The hotel has a well-run restaurant offering a good choice of dishes. 这家宾馆内有一家经营得很好的餐厅,提供各种各样的饭菜。

A well-designed sports shoe should absorb the impact on the 28 bones in each foot. 设计精良的运动鞋应能减轻冲击力以保护每只脚的28 块骨头。

——bad

It is his illness that makes him bad-tempered. 他因为生病,脾气变得暴躁。

He acknowledges that when he’s tired he gets bad-tempered. 他承认自己累了就会发脾气。

Eric was really bad-mannered. I’m never going to invite him again. 埃里克真没礼貌。我永远不想再请他来了。

When his headaches developed Nick became bad-tempered and even violent. 尼克出现头痛时脾气就变得很差,甚至还会动粗。

——ill

They accepted her claim that she had been ill-treated. 他们相信她受虐待的说法。

She tucked her ill-gotten gains into her purse and left. 她把不义之财塞入钱包后就离开了。

There’s nothing worse than for a parent to ill-treat a child. 没有什么比父母虐待自己的小孩那样更糟糕。

Once again an official inquiry has spoken of weak management and ill-trained workers. 官方调查又一次提到了管理不力与工人缺乏训练的问题。

The British are considered ill-mannered, badly dressed and unsophisticated. 英国人被认为缺乏教养、衣着邋遢、头脑简单。

If the banks opt to pull the rug from under the ill-fated project, it will go into liquidation. 如果这些银行不再对这个倒霉的项目提供支持,它也就破产了。

It seemed a singularly ill-judged enterprise for Truman to undertake. 这对于杜鲁门来说似乎是一项特别不明智的事业。

Every government is ill-disposed to the press, all or some of the time. 历届政府一直以来——或者说某些时候——都对新闻界冷面相待。

——poorly

My office is poorly-ventilated. 我的办公室通风不良。

Their lack of qualifications condemned them to a lifetime of boring, usually poorly-paid work. 没有学历使他们一辈子都得从事枯燥乏味而且通常报酬很低的工作。

 

【更多相关内容】

1、以a-开头的形容词用法新探‧agape

2、以a-开头的形容词用法新探•aflutter

3、angry的用法与搭配规律

4、historic与historical的区别

5、sure 的主语不能是事物吗

6、final与last的用法比较与辨析

7、fine用法小结

8、pleasant, pleasing与pleased的用法区别

9、你知道“the+形容词”的用法吗

10、brave的用法与语法

1 2